Saul Goldmen - Professor Emeritus  

Saul Goldman
Professor Emeritus

Department of Chemistry
University of Guelph
Tel: 519-824-4120, Ext. 53830


Research Interests:

Statistical Mechanics, transport theory, and simulations are applied to atoms and molecules in fluid phases and to ions in ion channels. We seek to predict and understand the thermodynamic, structural, spectroscopic and transport properties, of molecules, atoms and ions under conditions that are fundamentally interesting or that are relevant to biology and engineering. A recent interest is the development of improved biophysical models for preventing decompression sickness in scuba diving.

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Academic Background:

B.Sc. 1964,  Honours
Chemistry, McGill

Ph.D., 1969, Chemistry
McGill University


D.W. Ambridge Prize,
1970, McGill University
for top Ph.D. graduate in
Science and Engineering

NSERC Postdoctoral
Fellow, 1969-71
(University of Florida at




Supercritical Fluid Extraction: The work here involves developing a molecular level understanding and predictive theory for the solubility of large molecules in supercritical solvents such as CO2. The focus is on systems relevant to food science.

Theory of Infrared and Raman Spectra in Liquids: The infrared and Raman spectra of molecules in the liquid state, are interpreted theoretically.

Ion Channels: I am involved in a collaborative project whose purpose is to predict by simulation and theory the conductivity and selectivity of ion channel proteins from the basis of atomic scale models. Our first channels are the potassium inward rectifier channel Kir2.1 and KcsA.

Macroscopic Biophysical Modeling. This work involves developing improved tractable biophysical models in an attempt to capture the salient kinetic processes that underlie decompression sickness (DCS) in scuba diving. The initial work involved using interconnected compartmental models that allow for the effect of diffusion-driven dissolved inert gas exchange on the risk of developing DCS.

Ion Channel Research Group

Recent Publications.

J. Hu, S. Goldman, C.G. Gray and H.R. Guy. 2000. Calculation of the Conductance and Selectivity of an Ion-Selective Potassium Channel (IRK1) from simulation of Atomic Scale Models. Mol. Phys. 98, 535-547.

G.W.N. White, S. Goldman and C.G. Gray 2000. Test of Rate Theory Transmission Coefficient Algorithms. An Application to Ion Channels. Mol. Phys. 98, 1871-1885.

B. Tomberly, S. Goldman and C.G. Gray 2001. Predicting Solubility in Supercritical Solvents Using Estimated Virial Coefficients and Fluctuation Theory. Fluid Phase Equilibria 187-188, 111-130.

I.S. Tolokh, G.W.M. White, S. Goldman and C.G. Gray 2002. Prediction of ion channel transport from Grote-Hynes and Kramers theories. Mol. Phys. 100 2351-2359.

N. Alessi, I.S. Tolokh, S. Goldman and C.G. Gray. 2004. Simulation Study of Solvent Shifts of Vibrational Overtone Spectra. Mol. Phys. 102, 2037-2047.

N. Alessi, I.S. Tolokh, S. Goldman and C.G. Gray. 2005. Simulation Study of N2 Overtone Solvent Shifts Using Improved Potentials. Mol. Phys. 103, 2381-2396.

N. D’Avanzo, H.C. Cho, I.I. Tolokh, R. Pekhletski, I.S. Tolokh, C.G. Gray, S. Goldman and P.H. Backx. 2005. Conduction Through the Inward Rectifier Potassium Channel, Kir2.1 is Increased by Negatively Charged Extracellular Residues. J. Gen. Physiology. 125, 493-503.

I.S. Tolokh, I.I. Tolokh, H.C. Cho, N. D’Avanzo, P.H. Backx, S. Goldman and C.G. Gray. 2005. Non-Michaelis-Menten Kinetics Model for Conductance of  Low-conductance Potassium Ion Channels. Physical Review E, 71,02191(9).

B. Tomberli, S. Goldman, C.G. Gray, M.D.A. Saldana and F. Temelli. 2006. Using solute structure to predict solubility of organic molecules in supercritical carbon dioxide. Journal of Supercritical Fluids. 37,333.

Igor S. Tolokh, Saul Goldman and C.G. Gray. 2006. Unified modeling of conductance kinetics for low- and high-conductance potassium ion channels. Phys. Rev. E. 74,011902 (12 pages).

Hendrick W. de Haan, Igor S. Tolokh, C.G. Gray and Saul Goldman. 2006.Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics calculation of the conductance of the KcsA potassium ion channel. Phys. Rev E. 74, 030905 (4 pages).

Saul Goldman. 2007. A new class of biophysical models for predicting the probability of decompression sickness in scuba diving. J. Appl. Physiology. Articles 103, 484-493.

Saul Goldman. 2007. Appendices and Additional Materials for J. Appl. Physiol. 103, 484-493.

Saul Goldman. 2008. The stability of bubbles formed from supersaturated solutions, and homogeneous nucleation of gas bubbles from solution, both revisited. J. Phys. Chem. B. 112, 16701-16709.

Saul Goldman. 2009. Generalizations of the Young-Laplace equation for the pressure of a mechanically stable gas bubble in a soft elastic material. J. Chem. Phys. 131, 184502.

Saul Goldman. 2010. Free energy wells for small gas bubbles in soft deformable materials. J. Chem Phys. 132, 164509.

J.M. Solano-Altamirano and Saul Goldman. 2014.The lifetimes of small arterial gas emboli, and their possible connection to Inner Ear Decompression Sickness. Mathematical Biosciences, 252, 27-35.

J.M. Solano-Altamirano and Saul Goldman. 2015. Gas bubble dynamics in soft materials. Soft Matter, 11, 202-210.

Saul Goldman and J.M. Solano-Altamirano. 2015. Decompression sickness in breath-hold diving and its probable connection to the growth and dissolution of small arterial gas emboli. Math. Biosc., 262, 1-9.

J.M. Solano-Altamirano and Saul Goldman. 2015. Thermodynamic stability in elastic systems: Hard spheres embedded in a finite spherical elastic solid. European Physical Journal E. 38 : 133, pp1-13.

Published Magazine Articles.

Saul Goldman and Ethel Goldman. Coming soon to a dive computer near you. Alert Diver (European Edition, IVth Quarter, 2010).

Saul Goldman and Ethel Goldman. To Stop or not to Stop...and why. Diver (Vol 37 No 6, 2012)